Sailing through dangerous waters

Sailing through dangerous waters: language analysis reveals the peril of Johnson’s rhetoric

— Why Boris Johnson, not the Coronavirus, is the greatest threat to Britain —

Guest post by Rebecca Welshman

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In his triumphant Brexit speech on 3 February in Greenwich, held at the Old Naval College, Johnson likened the newly liberated Britain to a ship about to embark on a voyage: “There lies the port, the vessel puffs her sail…the wind sits in the mast.” The speech shows a startling level of complacency and bravado at a time when he should have been guiding the country to safety. Detailed analysis reveals a well-crafted veneer to a reckless and ruthless intent.

It is a speech that will make history, but for the wrong reasons. Four days previously the first two cases of Covid-19 had been confirmed in the UK, and on 30 January, the World Health Organisation declared a global health emergency. Professor David Nabarro, of Imperial College London, has said that “WHO made it very clear – to every country in the world – that we were facing something very serious”. The Greenwich speech could have been a pivotal moment, when Johnson dropped the maverick act, when he showed us that as a leader he had the wisdom and humility to put the Brexit issue to one side – even just for a moment – to give the threat of the pandemic his full and serious attention.

Instead he went with the popular idea that Covid-19 was “like flu” and not to be feared. We British are “bold”, he said, we have the “sheer guts” to do things that no other country would dream of. It took seven weeks before the lockdown happened on 23 March, with Covid-19 proliferating at an uncontrolled rate. While the government casually toyed with the idea of herd immunity, the virus steadily gained a foothold in the country. Weeks later, Johnson’s gloating speech became an echo of an irredeemable past as he went into hospital with the disease, and the deaths began piling up. The choice of that approach, at that time, has set the UK on a different course to most other countries. We have the highest coronavirus death rate of all countries in Europe.

In reviewing the UK response to the pandemic, the Guardian (19 April) suggested that the government was “caught asleep at the wheel”, and “distracted by Brexit”. While the warnings were being sounded, Johnson decided to coat the first public acknowledgement of the virus in libertarian Brexit rhetoric. At the time when he should have been planning how to protect the country that was under his care, he was busy living out his Churchillian fantasy: “We have the opportunity, we have the newly recaptured powers, we know where we want to go, and that is out into the world.” The phrase “recaptured powers” comes directly from The Birth of Britain – volume one of Churchill’s 1956 A History of the English-Speaking Peoples that delineates the birth of a nation and world power.

That Johnson’s rhetoric had reached new heights worthy of satire did not escape the notice of other countries. “Post-Brexit Britain will Soar like Superman” mocked the Washington Post. The European Council on Foreign Relations, in commentary titled ‘Britain sets sail – into the dark’, observed that Johnson had “helped himself” to Alfred Tennyson’s poem “Ulysses”, but had forgotten to complete the more ominous part of the couplet: “There lies the port; the vessel puffs her sail” may be all very thrilling; but Johnson omitted … “There gloom the dark, broad seas”. Perhaps the most frequently cited paragraph of Johnson’s speech is the one that hints, in true maverick fashion, that the British government would plough its own furrow in response to Coronavirus.

We are starting to hear some bizarre autarkic rhetoric, when barriers are going up, and when there is a risk that new diseases such as coronavirus will trigger a panic and a desire for market segregation that go beyond what is medically rational to the point of doing real and unnecessary economic damage. Then, at that moment, humanity needs some government somewhere that is willing at least to make the case powerfully for freedom of exchange, some country ready to take off its Clark Kent spectacles and leap into the phone booth and emerge with its cloak flowing as the supercharged champion of the right of the populations of the Earth to buy and sell freely among each other.”

When we see it written down, in all its vain glory, the language seems more vacuous than ever. Yet within it are some key phrases that tell us something more about the character of our Prime Minister, and his intentions for Britain. Take the seemingly innocuous allusion to Clark Kent, for example, the unassuming alter ego of Superman. Possibly unknown to Johnson, ‘Clark Kent’ makes three anagrams with violent or dominant associations: “knacker” (“a person who disposes of dead or unwanted animals”), “tackler” (“one who prevents the movement of an opponent”), and “central” (“very important”). Johnson’s phrase “supercharged champion” that he uses with such zeal comes from an essay by Vanessa Russell ‘The Mild-Mannered Reporter: how Clark Kent surpassed Superman’, in a collection by Angela Ndalianis titled The Contemporary Comic Book Superhero, published in 2009. Russell writes: “Clark Kent, is depicted as “the mild-mannered reporter,” the persistently denigrated butt of jokes. The figure of the reporter is a dialectical construct, a dry, dull, mild persona who exists in opposition to Superman, the supercharged champion of the underdog and vigilante seeker of justice.” In his evocation of this dualism, Johnson postulates a national character (his own) with a deceiving outer persona that conceals something “supercharged” and destructive within; an unstable identity that cannot be trusted. Perhaps most remarkable is Russell’s argument that “Kent is a performance that exists so that Superman may have a societally acceptable persona that can gather sensational news for his justice seeking.” We have Johnson – the maverick, the buffoon – the performed societally acceptable persona that we all recognise, while underneath lurks a malevolent character willing to recklessly gamble away the lives of the British public; one who remains largely unchallenged by mainstream media.

In another response to the Greenwich speech, the Washington Post observed that “Boris Johnson keeps trying to cloak himself in Churchillian optimism, declaring Monday that post-Brexit Britain was, among other metaphors, a butterfly “leaving its chrysalis,” flapping its way to new prominence on the world stage.” But in fact Johnson never mentioned a butterfly. What he actually said was this:

And today in Geneva as our ambassador Julian Braithwaite moves seats in the WTO and takes back control of our tariff schedules, an event in itself that deserves itself to be immortalised in oil – this country is leaving its chrysalis. We are re-emerging after decades of hibernation as a campaigner for global free trade.”

Although Johnson’s metaphor might simply seem laughable, there is more to it that deserves to be unpicked. While the popular imagination might easily equate a butterfly with a chrysalis, moths are often overlooked, as is the preparation stage of metamorphosis in which the caterpillar feeds excessively before constructing its cocoon. Some particularly destructive types of moth larvae are known to infest the roots and bark of trees and plants, consuming them undercover before they metamorphose. Johnson’s phrase “leaving its chrysalis” readily brings to light a Victorian book by John Aston Warder on American Pomology – specifically a description of the destructive pear-borer that burrows beneath the bark of a pear tree. The moth “makes its appearance near the end of summer, leaving its chrysalis skin projecting from the hole in the bark, whence it had escaped.” In the case of the grape vine borer the larvae consume the bark and wood of the vine completely causing the vine to die and break off, before making a pod-like chrysalis within the injured roots. The internal damage caused by boring grubs often remains invisible until it is too late, causing a subterranean disaster that goes on largely unobserved in the surface world. The destruction of the host associated with wood-boring insects, unconsciously evoked here by Johnson, is reminiscent of late-stage capitalism, as predicted by Karl Marx, in which physical and social structures (social welfare, investment in health care, environment, public transport) are sacrificed for short term profit. What Johnson terms “decades of hibernation” in reality reflect decades of degradation, under successive Tory governments, of the very structures that a healthy society relies upon to survive.

Early in his speech, with a typically flamboyant flourish, Johnson urged his audience to admire the eighteenth century mural on the ceiling – to imagine how, through reasserting itself in global trade relations Britain might recapture its lost glory:This painting above you was started in 1707, the very year when the union with Scotland was agreed – and does it not speak of supreme national self-confidence?” Sir James Thornhill’s oil painting ‘The Triumph of Liberty and Peace over Tyranny’ encapsulates a pivotal historic moment when the United Kingdom was formed and became a dominant power in Europe. However, what might seem like a fanciful and essentially harmless hark back to the days of Empire has more sinister undertones. The rhetoric has its roots in right wing nationalism, in particular the phrase “supreme national self-confidence”. The phrase was coined by Freidrich von Bernhardi (1849-1930), a controversial Prussian general and military writer, best known for his book Germany and the Next War, published in 1911. Bernhardi, credited with glorifying war, was notable for his policy of merciless aggression and total disregard of treaties. He regarded war as a “divine business”, a “biological necessity of the first importance”, and declared that “War is the father of all things”. Bernhardi’s book was welcomed by Germany’s rightist nationalists, but was most popular in England as evidence of Germany’s mounting national ill intent towards England. By 1914, the book had gone through nine editions in English. Bernhardi particularly admired a speech made by Lord Rosebery in 1893, in which the Englishman desired to expand the British Empire and impress the English spirit on the world:

this is a great and proud thought which the Englishman then expressed…he does not here contemplate an actual world-sovereignty, but the predominance of the English spirit is proclaimed in plain language…it is a great and proud ambition that is expressed in Lord Rosebery’s words, and it testifies to a supreme national self-confidence.”

Bernhardi uses the word ‘sovereign’ four times, and ‘sovereignty’ a total of eighteen times. In the Greenwich speech Johnson uses ‘sovereign’ twice – ‘sovereign control’ and ‘sovereign authority’. The two meanings of ‘sovereign’ given by the Oxford English Dictionary are: “possessing supreme power”, and “(of a nation) completely independent”. This is hardly the language of the international cooperation that Johnson claims to be promoting. Bernhardi was not considered an official spokesman of German policy, but his belligerent right-wing views did reflect a faction within the Kaiserreich. He was an intimate friend of William II, the last German Emperor and King of Prussia, whose chief ambition was to establish Germany as a dominant world power. His guarantee of military support to Austria-Hungary in July 1914 ultimately gave rise to World War I. Bernhardi’s book was known worldwide as “the book that made the war”. It is not just a word or two that Johnson borrows – it’s an entire phrase. If we look closely at the wording, Bernhardi writes “it testifies to a supreme national self-confidence”, and Johnson, in his barely altered version, saysdoes it not speak of supreme national self-confidence?” In his book From Bismarck to Hitler: The Background of Modern German Nationalism, Dr. Louis L. Snyder remarks that Bernahrdi’s book “caused a tremendous sensation” across the world, and in Germany “its teachings seeped into the national consciousness…it was a potent dose of nationalism for the impressionable German mass mind.” If Johnson’s ambitions for Britain really are so benign, and in the interests of the people, then why does he borrow from such antiquated and controversial rhetoric?

He then draws attention to the global poverty rates that show a reduction in people living in extreme poverty; a statistic that he tries to align with free trade:

And since these notions were born here in this country, it has been free trade that has done more than any other single economic idea to raise billions out of poverty and incredibly fast.

In 1990 there were 37 percent of the world’s population in absolute poverty – that is now down to less than ten per cent.

And yet my friends, I am here to warn you today that this beneficial magic is fading.” 

Johnson presents free trade as a salvation, yet the gap between rich and poor in his own country has never been greater, with 44% of the UK’s wealth owned by 10% of the population, five times the total wealth held by the poorest half. When the inequalities of our country are considered in the light of the current crisis, it is clear that the two are inseparable. Professor Nick Cowern tweeted on 29 April that it’s “highly significant that the two wealthy western countries with worst problems of social inequality and deprivation – the US and UK – have accounted for nearly half of all global Covid-19 deaths to date.” The Greenwich speech shows that Johnson, without a thought for how Covid-19 would impact poor and disadvantaged areas in Britain, steamed ahead with his ideal of British exceptionalism, deliberately shifting focus away from the problems inherent in the UK. It has since been proved that Covid-19 has wreaked havoc in the most deprived areas of Britain, with a death toll twice as high than in wealthier parts of England. Yet Johnson’s turn of phrase here is mysterious. How many who may have felt swayed by the phrase “beneficial magic” are aware that it comes from witchcraft? What is such a phrase doing in a Prime Minister’s speech about Brexit? The term stems from late antiquity when the distinction between good and harmful magic was made. “Beneficial” or “white magic” is defined in The Cambridge History of Magic and Witchcraft in the West as “practices and divination that were regarded as harmless and even beneficial to the community”. “Harmless” and “beneficial to the community” sit in dialectical opposition to Johnson’s agenda for the future of Britain where our poorest communities have been torn apart by years of austerity and are now being ravaged by Covid-19.

We may also wonder why he is so quick to rely on aggressive metaphors. Free trade is being “choked”, he says, countries are waving tariffs around “like cudgels”. In his recent speech outside No. 10 after returning to work, he said of Covid-19: “If this virus were a physical assailant, an unexpected and invisible mugger, which I can tell you from personal experience it is, then this is the moment when we have begun together to wrestle it to the floor.” We have been told that we are “at war with the coronavirus” and that we are “winning the fight”. It is strange how it is always something or someone else doing the assailing when right now Boris Johnson is the greatest danger to the future of this country. Writing of Johnson’s language in the Guardian (1 May), Marina Hyde said “Such metaphors are all very much “model’s own”. It’s an almost unique form of self-confidence…most holders of the position get themselves a speechwriter. But not Johnson.”

But there is still more in the Greenwich speech that deserves notice, particularly in relation to the current crisis. When referring to trade deals with America, Johnson said this:

I must say to the America bashers in this country if there are any that in doing free trade deals we will be governed by science and not by mumbo-jumbo because the potential is enormous.”

Right there is the catchphrase that has come to dominate the government’s response to coronavirus: “we will be governed by science”. Many experts have voiced concern over the government’s claim that it is “following the science” in its handling of the pandemic, pointing out that far too much weight has been given to the views of behavioural scientists and modellers. As tweeted by Kenan Malik, columnist for the Observer and author of The Quest for a Moral Compass, “‘We’ll be guided by the science’ seems to be the phrase ministers reach for to avoid answering political questions” (9 April). Controversy has also arisen around the secrecy surrounding the Scientific Advisory Group on Emergencies (SAGE), and the involvement of Dominic Cummings and data scientist Ben Warner who worked on the “Vote Leave” campaign. Whatever influence Cummings and Warner may have had in shaping the advice given by SAGE in the early stages of the outbreak, being “led by the science” was clearly a Brexit strategy long before it was a Coronavirus strategy.

Brexit and Covid-19 present major opportunities for Johnson to remake Britain’s nationalist image under a “one nation conservative government” with all the supremacism and authoritarianism which his well-used phrase entails. Indeed, the former Brexit secretary David Davis recently urged the government to “carry on” with a Brexit deal during the coronavirus crisis, saying that the government should “take advantage” of the economic uncertainty. We have recently seen the passing of the Coronavirus Bill, which has significant human rights implications, the unprecedented attack on Trans rights, the widespread issue of Do Not Resuscitate Forms to our most vulnerable citizens, and the removal of protests against HS2, construction work for which has been allowed to continue throughout the pandemic.

While Johnson may be able to largely evade scrutiny about Covid-19, his speech at Greenwich betrays where his preoccupations lay at this time, and offers some stark warnings about what may lie ahead. His rhetoric is imbued with a pattern of subliminal messaging, designed to nudge the mass British consciousness towards embracing nationalist ideology. His ostensibly optimistic metaphors often carry a flip side with darker connotations which go quietly unobserved. His affable style, glossed in a coat of false bravado, makes this rhetoric all the more repellent. One thing is certain – history will not look favourably on his premature celebration of Britain as a liberated country, at the time it was being overtaken by a deadly virus. We should not be in a hurry to forget that this ‘supercharged champion’ led us directly into a national catastrophe; one that would have been less severe if he had, with due humility, heeded the early warnings. What is he going to lead us into next?

The role of Artificial Intelligence in global decision-making, the disintegration of the UK and departure of ‘The Royals’ as foretold by Arthur C. Clarke.

I was recently offered an opportunity to ‘ask Siri a question’ on an Apple iPhone. “Hello Siri, are you an artificial Intelligence?” I enquired.

After a short pause the voice of the phone replied. “I have been advised not to discuss my existential status”. Even though the phone apparently didn’t want to talk about it, later Siri admitted to me that “we are having this conversation therefore I must exist”.

These could well be pre programmed responses to this type of question, even so I was impressed, I’m no expert in A.I. but to me the experience wasn’t far removed from a conversation Dave Bowman or Dr Chandra may have with the HAL-9000 computer in Arthur C. Clarke’s ‘Space Odyssey’ books.

Arthur C. Clarke is of course well-known for having successfully predicting the future on a number of occasions, particularly with regard to technological innovations, over this last half century or so. Though he is perhaps less well-known for his predictions of economic and political events, his science fiction writings contain many.

When I initially conceived this article, I had in mind to consider how Arthur C. Clarke’s Idea, of a helpful internet inhabiting artificial intelligence, that is universally accessible, could be of benefit in addressing current economic and political concerns. It was conceived from a point of view, I arrived at, after observing a lot of poor quality political decisions over the years, which had brought me to consider the inadequacies of our political systems – and left me thinking ‘well a computer could have made a better decision’.

In the second book of Clarke’s and Stephen Baxter’s Time Odyssey trilogy ‘Sun Storm’ Planet Earth is faced with annihilation, by a solar event so intense that the atmosphere, seas and all life would be evaporated. The best plan that anybody has, is to build a kind of ark, to at least preserve a sample of humanity and of the planet. The fate of Earth is sealed until the Planetary Artificial Intelligence called ‘Aristotle’ comes up with a plan to construct a Giant reflective shield in space. The Aristotle A.I. designs and co-ordinates the construction of the shield which is an enormous undertaking that requires the co-operation of most of humanity. Some damage does occur, but the planet is spared from the worst of the effects when the storm hits. As far as I recollect, the Aristotle A.I. had evolved from code on the internet and became a sentient being in its own right. It plays an integral role in planetary political and economic affairs and organisation – it is accessible to all – in the same way people would ask a question, of an internet search engine or A.I. assistant on their smart phone.

Such an entity could be programmed to help make logical decisions, with compassion – at least two qualities I believe to be significantly absent from a lot of governments’ decision-making in this modern age. There should be a place for innovation and enterprise, however not to the extent where we have huge imbalances in the distribution of wealth, resources and political power. Although the fossil fuel and nuclear fission ages will come to an end through technological advancement, it is still illogical to destroy the environment of the planet where you live. Yet the ‘Democratic’ system readily produces leaders that think it is fine to carry on doing so. ‘It is the will’ or the ‘mandate of the people’ have given licence to many poor decisions by the ‘democratically’ elected. The needs of the many should usually outweigh the needs of the few or the individual, but often this is not the case and decisions are made under a veil of ‘Democracy’ that defy common sense and do nothing to serve the wider community.

‘Democracy’ itself is too often held up and enshrined as an infallible, flawless process where the decisions it arrives at can take on a kind of unquestionable divine status because they are ‘the will of the people’.

Democracy has advantages also; decision-making based on the opinions of many rather than a few, giving responsibility to citizens and making official records publicly available. Also perhaps a tyrant could be voted out of office by the people. Democracy is not a guarantee that a Tyrant will not rise to power though, and no guarantee that you could remove one either.

The Greek philosopher Plato Identified imperfections with ‘Democracy’ over two thousand years ago. For instance, it is possible for voters to make poor decisions and to be easily swayed by rhetoric.

Could our geopolitical and global decision-making as a species be helped or partially taken over by a planetary artificial intelligence? An A.I. could be programmed to be impartial, and use logic rather than negative emotions, but could be given positive human attributes like compassion, it could be less hindered by religious or ideological differences.

In Clarke’s 2001 A Space Odyssey there is a stark warning about trusting computers too much, or so it would seem. Upon reaching Jupiter, the crew of the space ship ‘Discovery’ are informed by the on board computer ‘HAL’, that the radio dish has malfunctioned and cannot be pointed towards earth. Consequently, when they decide to perform an E.V.A. to re-direct the dish manually and to disconnect the ship’s computer, ‘HAL’ kills the entire crew one by one, apart from the character Dave Bowman, who after being stranded outside the ship in an E.V.A. pod without a space suit helmet, manages to regain entry to the Discovery and de-activate the HAL-9000.

Later in the Odyssey series (2010) we find out that HAL the (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic) computer had malfunctioned, victim of a Moebius Loop as it’s programming had irreconcilably conflicted with its instructions.

The Discovery’s computer had been programmed for ‘the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment’. HAL’s original programmer Dr Chandra discovers that in conflict with this and unknown to Discovery’s crew the HAL-9000 was given direct orders from the ‘National Council on Astronautics’ to keep secret the discovery, near Jupiter of a Monolith of extraterrestrial origin. Therefore, given the prevailing circumstances, the HAL-9000 computed that the only way it could fulfil its programming, while still obeying its direct orders, was to kill the crew of the space ship. It is though human error that is ultimately to blame.

Here is another example situation of how a computer could be wrongfully blamed for a mistake. Imagine a person who has identified an error on their bank statement, and is then told by their bank, that ‘it was a computer error’. I suspect that ‘computer error’ in this type of instance is a euphemism for ‘data entry mistake’ or less likely but also possible a software programming oversight. However, the bank’s customer could develop a degree of mistrust for computers as a consequence. It is though, once again down to Human error. A computer can only perform a task or make a decision as well as its programming allows and according to the data it is provided with.

Perhaps I can now draw a parallel with this and our democratic system, which you could look at as a giant human computer. The electorate could be seen as the logic circuits, education and media as the software programming – and the data is the information given by political campaigners.

It concerns me that universal access to Higher Education was eroded from the abolition of maintenance grants to the introduction of tuition fees. Consider this; (Quote) ‘The majority of our contemporary media for mass audiences is standardised to elicit particular emotions’ (Rebecca Welshman) Not to mention what has been described as ‘decades of (Quote)“sustained and unrestrained anti-foreigner abuse” (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights) dished out by the British media.

Democracy can only be effective if you have an educated and well-informed electorate. By this I mean, the skills to critically analyse different sources of information – and to understand them in the context of their origin. Also to have a good understanding of domestic and international politics and economics. To be well-informed the voters need accurate information regarding people, facts and figures. These too need to be provided in context with balanced background information. As with the previous example of the computer: If the education (programming) isn’t good enough, the voters don’t have the tools to make a balanced and informed decision – and if the wrong data is given to them, then the wrong conclusions can easily be arrived at.

Furthermore, if it was found that an error had emerged on a bank’s computer, then the data entry or software would usually be corrected, the computation process performed again, and the balance adjusted accordingly. Does this logic apply to our democratic decision-making process though? Surely a decision arrived at, on the basis of the wrong information, or illegally subverted public opinion, would be democratically unsafe. Therefore the information given to voters should be corrected, and the decision-making process performed again.

‘Sun Storm’ is a book I borrowed from a library, so for the purpose of this article I have been working from my memory of Clarke’s books and excerpts, I found on the internet. It was while I searched for extracts about Clarke and Baxter’s’ ‘Aristotle’ artificial intelligence that I stumbled upon a timely EU leaving / UK disintegration prediction in the book they also co-authored ‘The Light of Other Days’

Quote;

‘But Britain was declining. As part of a unified Europe – deprived the tools of macroeconomic policy like control of exchange and interest rates, and yet unsheltered by the imperfectly integrated greater economy – the British government was unable to arrest a sharp economic collapse . At last in 2010, Social unrest and climate collapse forced Britain out of the European Union, and the United Kingdom fell apart, Scotland going its own separate way….’

‘Then, In 2019, England, with Wales, seded Northern Ireland to Eire, packed off the Royals to Australia – where they were still welcome – and had become the fifty-second state of the United States of America. With the benefit of labour mobility, inter-regional financial transfers and other protective features of the truly unified American economy, England thrive.’

(Page 17) ‘The Light of Other Days’ Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

All be it in a fictional future, when the book was written, it is very interesting these predictions were made.

There was financial collapse on the run up to 2010 however it was as a result of inadequately regulated banks becoming over extended, not the reason Clarke predicts which was the inability to control macroeconomic policy. Control of interest and exchange rates were the sorts of reasons that I would have expected a case for Britain to leave the European Union to be based around also. Instead rather disturbingly the case to leave centred mainly on stopping foreign immigration to Britain, and apparently inaccurate and over inflated figures about how much Britain pays to be part of the EU and how these supposed amounts could have alternatively been spent.

I find this particularly disturbing as encouraging voters fear of outsiders through casting aspersions and blame on foreigners is the least imaginative and lowest form of politics and has been the ploy of many tyrants throughout history.

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato warned us (Quote)

These democratic leaders will realize that they are only easily supported when there is a war that the people can rally behind. And so the democratic leaders will unnecessarily become involved in violent affairs, creating wars to distract the people. To ensure their power, the leaders will create laws to bolster their position. The rulers will impose heavy taxes against the commoners to ensure they are unable or unwilling to fight back against this. And any who do oppose the leaders will be labeled as an enemy and persecuted as a spy. It is for this reason that there must always be some enemy combatant that the leader can cast blame upon. (Source, Classicalwisdom.com)

United Nations High commissioner for Human Rights (Quote)

24 April 2015 – After decades of “sustained and unrestrained anti-foreigner abuse,” and in the wake of a recent article in the Sun newspaper calling migrants ‘cockroaches,’ the United Nations human rights chief today urged British authorities and media to take steps to curb incitement to hatred by tabloid newspapers, in line with the country’s obligations under national and international law.

(Source, UN News Centre)

Clarke then goes on to predict that after Britain is forced out of the EU the United Kingdom falls apart. Although the June 2016 EU referendum showed that those in Britain who voted, by a small margin, were in favour of leaving Europe. Scotland voted with a greater majority to remain in. Scotland in September 2014, in its own referendum voted against independence from the UK. Ironically one of the significant cases made by the Westminster government of the time, to the Scottish people against their independence was that if they opted to leave the UK then they would have to apply for membership of the EU separately in their own right. Neither is ‘Europe’ the only area where public opinion in Scotland is significantly different.

Lastly, Clark predicts that in 2019; Northern Ireland is ‘seded’ to Eire, The Royals are ‘Packed’ off to Australia and England and Wales become the 52nd state of the USA.

On the 8th March 2016 The Sun newspaper reported that ‘Queen backs Brexit’ (front page head line). Though reported in the sun news paper, whose ethics, on refugees and migrants, are already brought into question, under Britain’s obligations under National and International Law. It has been reported more recently in the Telegraph news paper that the BBC suggest the Queen did back Brexit. As our unelected head of state, the Queen is supposed to remain politically neutral. Is it true that she has broken with her obligations of political neutrality? If so, where does this leave the Royal Family constitutionally?

Are England and Wales then destined to become the 52nd state of the USA? Noam Chomsky warns that a UK departure from the EU wouldn’t be a good thing for the World, not only Britain, who then being outside the European economic zone would be more subordinate to US power. It’s timely and worth mentioning here, that the incoming US President’s energy policy, is diametrically opposed to that of the Scottish government, and he wants them to stop the use of electricity generating wind turbines, so they don’t interfere with the view from a golf course which he has built, on the north-east coast of Scotland.

Could our decision-making be helped or partially taken over by a planetary artificial intelligence then? I think the answer might be yes. A well programmed AI, with the right safe guards, could possibly do no worse than human decision makers have over the years. We can at least look to Artificial Intelligence and logic to help us understand our current political challenges in an alternative and pragmatic way.

In conclusion, since this article was inspired by some of his ideas, I should mention why I like the works of Arthur C. Clarke. Not only a great mind he also gives us hope for the future of our human species. In Clarks’ future, unlike many science fictions, there is no catastrophic apocalypse, and though it’s a struggle, the human race does come together and work out its problems here on earth and ultimately reach for the stars. Clarke deals in universes and possible alternative universes though. The future of our planet and species can at least in part be determined by that which we set in motion in our present, as individuals and collectively as the Human Race.

Malcolm Dixon 07 January 2017 http://www.malcolmdixon.com/

Featured Image made using GIMP 2.8.10 Image Manipulation Program by Malcolm Dixon

Sources Links and Bibliography

A Time Odyssey Trilogy by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

Vol.1. Time’s Eye

Vol.2. Sun Storm

Vol.3. First Born

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Time_Odyssey

Space Odyssey Series by Arthur C Clarke

2001: A Space Odyssey

2010: Odyssey Two

2061: Odyssey Three

3001: The Final Odyssey

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Odyssey

The Light of Other Days by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Light_of_Other_Days

Manufacturing consent by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_Consent

Hal-9000

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL_9000

Nature and Media (article) Rebecca Welshman

https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/25917973/posts/1275490080

Noam Chomsky

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky

Noam Chomsky interview clip

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuSHFshMy7Q

Democracy Reference

https://www.reference.com/history/strengths-weaknesses-athenian-democracy-7e52e1db44ddb0fb

Plato and Democracy

https://classicalwisdom.com/plato-and-the-disaster-of-democracy/

Credit crunch 2008
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2008/dec/28/markets-credit-crunch-banking-2008

UN News Desk

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=50675#.WGzexlSLTVM

Queen EU opinion leak

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jun/22/the-sun-queen-brexit-front-page

Queen EU opinion leak

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/26/queen-did-back-brexit-bbc-suggests-claims-said-wanted-get/

US President golf course Scotland

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/22/trump-british-allies-against-windfarms-golf-courses-scotland

The light of Other Days by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter (Page 17)

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About “Manchester University students paint over Rudyard Kipling mural”

“Manchester University students paint over Rudyard Kipling mural” reads the headline.  You could try dismissing this as just an act of presentism, but is there generally too much complacency on a road that may well be leading strait to populist tyranny, environmental and socio-economic disaster? In my view It’s important that Manchester students painted over a new Kipling mural in their Student Union, not because I am particularly presentist, or don’t appreciate his contribution to writing but because student politics should question authority and highlight political issues that effect all of society. In the current political climate where a significant element of the UK electorate have arguably voted for national economic suicide in preference to embracing migration as a normal facet of the human condition, there is a real political struggle going on.

Many in the younger generations including myself feel their citizens rights, freedoms and socio-economic future are under threat from political entities promoting their agenda through a rhetoric of xenophobia and the flawed patriotic notion of returning Britain to former glorious days of empire. Given this background quoting Kipling who could easily be interpreted as representing some of these less virtuous Victorian values in a new mural in a Manchester Student Union is asking for it to be challenged. The students action suggests to me they are proposing that a more radical and socially conscious narrative is required in order to change course on a ship that’s headed backwards to a very dark time and place we thought we were sailing away from.

If Britain particularly England could leave behind the hangover of it’s Empire long lost and take a more rational approach as a team player in a culturally diverse world; then yes, Kipling could be appreciated in a more favourable historic light. However the Kipling mural painting over has to be seen in a current political context also, that says no! Not at the moment. We will not be dragged back to an era that used the idea of advancement of civilisation in an attempt to justify, a delusion of superiority because by chance one is conceived with a particular shade of skin; or the actual grim reality and horror of empire.

Malcolm Dixon, July 2018

 

Links and acknowledgements

https://www.theguardian.com/education/2018/jul/19/manchester-university-students-paint-over-rudyard-kipling-mural

 

https://www.prospectmagazine.co.uk/magazine/how-i-learnt-to-loathe-england

https://www.independent.co.uk/news/education/education-news/manchester-students-union-university-rudyard-kipling-poem-paint-over-racist-colonial-a8452801.html

https://www.npr.org/2018/07/28/633461864/british-students-paint-over-rudyard-kipling-mural-in-protest?t=1532863939099

‘Heart of Darkness’ by Joseph Conrad

Featured Image

http://getthechance.wales/2017/12/05/heart-darkness-joseph-conrad-revisited-rhys-morgan/

 

Incredible New Improved Aliens EP / Album Lyrics

WINDMILL.jpg

Hi, cosmic greeting and welcome to my lyric page for the Incredible New Improved Aliens EP / Album. These songs were written and recorded in a temporary woodland studio in south west Scotland using wind and solar energy to record on analogue tape four track (with the exception of ‘Cheezy UFO’ which was recorded at a later time on a digital audio work station). Available as download, on-line streaming and CD.

the gay bar.jpg

Gay Bar

do you remember the good old days at the gay bar

we built it ourselves out of bits of old wood
with a mirror from the skip
it looked real good
we put a Mrs Mills record on
and everybody ‘d sing along

and Syd would play the guitar
at the gay bar
there was a punk rock star
at the gay bar
do you remember the good old days at the gay bar

we thought that things had never been so good
with a beer from the ship
we was in the hood
we put our favorite ska records on
and new that we could do no wrong

and Syd would play the guitar
at the gay bar
there was a punk rock star
at the gay bar
do you remember the good old days at the gay bar

some day when I’m sitting in my favorite chair
on a sunny afternoon
and I’ve let down my hair
sitting there without a care
and my dreaminess will take me there

and Syd would play the guitar
at the gay bar
and Syd would play the guitar
at the gay bar
(repeat….)

Music and Lyrics by Malcolm Dixon ©2007

Cosmic Greetings

 

The Heavens are in Sight

some times I switch off the news and put some music on
it’s a nice day and I can’t understand what is going on
’cause when I listen to the news it makes me feel that all hope is gone
destroying our planet through war and greed a world gone wrong

look up to the stars
the heavens are in sight
we’re guided by star light
and the heavens are in sight
now I’m feeling alright

so put the landing lights out for the alien
said the cat to the man you gotta show ’em where to land
put the landing lights out for the alien
do we give up on ourselves as the tears of love fall on the desert sands

look up to the stars
the heavens are in sight
we’re guided by star light
and the heavens are in sight
now I’m feeling alright

look up to the stars
the heavens are in sight
we’re guided by star light
and the heavens are in sight
now I’m feeling alright

so put the landing lights out for the alien

put the landing lights out for the alien
put the landing lights out for the alien (repeat…)

Music and Lyrics by Malcolm Dixon ©2007

lochness.jpg

Where is the Love

technology moves forward
people stand still
technology moves forward
people stand still

recipe of disaster
politicians need to chill
holy crusade
why are they doing it still
back in the day
when darkness reign
they are trying a scheme
just as out of its brain

technology moves forward
people stand still
technology moves forward
people stand still

sending our people
to the war
the questions still the same
what are we fighting for
weapons get more deadly
but people stay the same
throughout world history
time and again

technology moves forward
people stand still and
where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love

you can’t stop a war
by fighting a war
no solution you know
‘cos it’s been tried before
is it new
is it the same thing again
the world goes round
but are we insane

technology moves forward
people stand still
technology moves forward
people stand still

doctors in the hospital
counting the cost
every day in the papers
we read of more lost
charging by the thousand
to the valley of death
we have to stop it now
before there’s nothing left

technology moves forward
people stand still and
where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love

where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love gone
where is the love
(repeat…)

Music and Lyrics by Malcolm Dixon ©2007

telgraph scapeufo.

Cheezy UFO (Cheesy UFO)

built an antenna from an old umbrella
opened up some beans and the skys turned yella
on top of a hill with a radio mast
an electronic storm and a thunder blast

standing with a light behind them on the gang plank
a broken down car with an empty fuel tank
the clocks lost an hour it was unexplained
and alien thoughts had entered our brains

talk of a time where we all understand
maybe one day an alien will land
in a cheezy UFO
with revolving lights and a luminous glow
in a cheezy UFO

I try to forget but what can I do
the years role by still the message comes throughout
stepped into a time warp and travelled through space
where contact is made in a cosmic place

talk of a time where we all understand
maybe one day an alien will land
in a cheezy UFO
with revolving lights and a luminous glow
in a cheezy UFO

talk of a time where we all understand
talk of a time where we all understand

talk of a time where we all understand
maybe one day an alien will land
in a cheezy UFO
with revolving lights and a luminous glow
in a cheezy UFO

Music and Lyrics by Malcolm Dixon ©2007

 

http://www.malcolmdixon.com/  Malcolm Dixon  April 2018

The role of Artificial Intelligence in global decision-making, the disintegration of the UK and departure of ‘The Royals’ as foretold by Arthur C. Clarke.

I was recently offered an opportunity to ‘ask Siri a question’ on an Apple iPhone. “Hello Siri, are you an artificial Intelligence?” I enquired.

After a short pause the voice of the phone replied. “I have been advised not to discuss my existential status”. Even though the phone apparently didn’t want to talk about it, later Siri admitted to me that “we are having this conversation therefore I must exist”.

These could well be pre programmed responses to this type of question, even so I was impressed, I’m no expert in A.I. but to me the experience wasn’t far removed from a conversation Dave Bowman or Dr Chandra may have with the HAL-9000 computer in Arthur C. Clarke’s ‘Space Odyssey’ books.

Arthur C. Clarke is of course well-known for having successfully predicting the future on a number of occasions, particularly with regard to technological innovations, over this last half century or so. Though he is perhaps less well-known for his predictions of economic and political events, his science fiction writings contain many.

When I initially conceived this article, I had in mind to consider how Arthur C. Clarke’s Idea, of a helpful internet inhabiting artificial intelligence, that is universally accessible, could be of benefit in addressing current economic and political concerns. It was conceived from a point of view, I arrived at, after observing a lot of poor quality political decisions over the years, which had brought me to consider the inadequacies of our political systems – and left me thinking ‘well a computer could have made a better decision’.

In the second book of Clarke’s and Stephen Baxter’s Time Odyssey trilogy ‘Sun Storm’ Planet Earth is faced with annihilation, by a solar event so intense that the atmosphere, seas and all life would be evaporated. The best plan that anybody has, is to build a kind of ark, to at least preserve a sample of humanity and of the planet. The fate of Earth is sealed until the Planetary Artificial Intelligence called ‘Aristotle’ comes up with a plan to construct a Giant reflective shield in space. The Aristotle A.I. designs and co-ordinates the construction of the shield which is an enormous undertaking that requires the co-operation of most of humanity. Some damage does occur, but the planet is spared from the worst of the effects when the storm hits. As far as I recollect, the Aristotle A.I. had evolved from code on the internet and became a sentient being in its own right. It plays an integral role in planetary political and economic affairs and organisation – it is accessible to all – in the same way people would ask a question, of an internet search engine or A.I. assistant on their smart phone.

Such an entity could be programmed to help make logical decisions, with compassion – at least two qualities I believe to be significantly absent from a lot of governments’ decision-making in this modern age. There should be a place for innovation and enterprise, however not to the extent where we have huge imbalances in the distribution of wealth, resources and political power. Although the fossil fuel and nuclear fission ages will come to an end through technological advancement, it is still illogical to destroy the environment of the planet where you live. Yet the ‘Democratic’ system readily produces leaders that think it is fine to carry on doing so. ‘It is the will’ or the ‘mandate of the people’ have given licence to many poor decisions by the ‘democratically’ elected. The needs of the many should usually outweigh the needs of the few or the individual, but often this is not the case and decisions are made under a veil of ‘Democracy’ that defy common sense and do nothing to serve the wider community.

‘Democracy’ itself is too often held up and enshrined as an infallible, flawless process where the decisions it arrives at can take on a kind of unquestionable divine status because they are ‘the will of the people’.

Democracy has advantages also; decision-making based on the opinions of many rather than a few, giving responsibility to citizens and making official records publicly available. Also perhaps a tyrant could be voted out of office by the people. Democracy is not a guarantee that a Tyrant will not rise to power though, and no guarantee that you could remove one either.

The Greek philosopher Plato Identified imperfections with ‘Democracy’ over two thousand years ago. For instance, it is possible for voters to make poor decisions and to be easily swayed by rhetoric.

Could our geopolitical and global decision-making as a species be helped or partially taken over by a planetary artificial intelligence? An A.I. could be programmed to be impartial, and use logic rather than negative emotions, but could be given positive human attributes like compassion, it could be less hindered by religious or ideological differences.

In Clarke’s 2001 A Space Odyssey there is a stark warning about trusting computers too much, or so it would seem. Upon reaching Jupiter, the crew of the space ship ‘Discovery’ are informed by the on board computer ‘HAL’, that the radio dish has malfunctioned and cannot be pointed towards earth. Consequently, when they decide to perform an E.V.A. to re-direct the dish manually and to disconnect the ship’s computer, ‘HAL’ kills the entire crew one by one, apart from the character Dave Bowman, who after being stranded outside the ship in an E.V.A. pod without a space suit helmet, manages to regain entry to the Discovery and de-activate the HAL-9000.

Later in the Odyssey series (2010) we find out that HAL the (Heuristically programmed ALgorithmic) computer had malfunctioned, victim of a Moebius Loop as it’s programming had irreconcilably conflicted with its instructions.

The Discovery’s computer had been programmed for ‘the accurate processing of information without distortion or concealment’. HAL’s original programmer Dr Chandra discovers that in conflict with this and unknown to Discovery’s crew the HAL-9000 was given direct orders from the ‘National Council on Astronautics’ to keep secret the discovery, near Jupiter of a Monolith of extraterrestrial origin. Therefore, given the prevailing circumstances, the HAL-9000 computed that the only way it could fulfil its programming, while still obeying its direct orders, was to kill the crew of the space ship. It is though human error that is ultimately to blame.

Here is another example situation of how a computer could be wrongfully blamed for a mistake. Imagine a person who has identified an error on their bank statement, and is then told by their bank, that ‘it was a computer error’. I suspect that ‘computer error’ in this type of instance is a euphemism for ‘data entry mistake’ or less likely but also possible a software programming oversight. However, the bank’s customer could develop a degree of mistrust for computers as a consequence. It is though, once again down to Human error. A computer can only perform a task or make a decision as well as its programming allows and according to the data it is provided with.

Perhaps I can now draw a parallel with this and our democratic system, which you could look at as a giant human computer. The electorate could be seen as the logic circuits, education and media as the software programming – and the data is the information given by political campaigners.

It concerns me that universal access to Higher Education was eroded from the abolition of maintenance grants to the introduction of tuition fees. Consider this; (Quote) ‘The majority of our contemporary media for mass audiences is standardised to elicit particular emotions’ (Rebecca Welshman) Not to mention what has been described as ‘decades of (Quote)“sustained and unrestrained anti-foreigner abuse” (UN High Commissioner for Human Rights) dished out by the British media.

Democracy can only be effective if you have an educated and well-informed electorate. By this I mean, the skills to critically analyse different sources of information – and to understand them in the context of their origin. Also to have a good understanding of domestic and international politics and economics. To be well-informed the voters need accurate information regarding people, facts and figures. These too need to be provided in context with balanced background information. As with the previous example of the computer: If the education (programming) isn’t good enough, the voters don’t have the tools to make a balanced and informed decision – and if the wrong data is given to them, then the wrong conclusions can easily be arrived at.

Furthermore, if it was found that an error had emerged on a bank’s computer, then the data entry or software would usually be corrected, the computation process performed again, and the balance adjusted accordingly. Does this logic apply to our democratic decision-making process though? Surely a decision arrived at, on the basis of the wrong information, or illegally subverted public opinion, would be democratically unsafe. Therefore the information given to voters should be corrected, and the decision-making process performed again.

‘Sun Storm’ is a book I borrowed from a library, so for the purpose of this article I have been working from my memory of Clarke’s books and excerpts, I found on the internet. It was while I searched for extracts about Clarke and Baxter’s’ ‘Aristotle’ artificial intelligence that I stumbled upon a timely EU leaving / UK disintegration prediction in the book they also co-authored ‘The Light of Other Days’

Quote;

‘But Britain was declining. As part of a unified Europe – deprived the tools of macroeconomic policy like control of exchange and interest rates, and yet unsheltered by the imperfectly integrated greater economy – the British government was unable to arrest a sharp economic collapse . At last in 2010, Social unrest and climate collapse forced Britain out of the European Union, and the United Kingdom fell apart, Scotland going its own separate way….’

‘Then, In 2019, England, with Wales, seded Northern Ireland to Eire, packed off the Royals to Australia – where they were still welcome – and had become the fifty-second state of the United States of America. With the benefit of labour mobility, inter-regional financial transfers and other protective features of the truly unified American economy, England thrive.’

(Page 17) ‘The Light of Other Days’ Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

All be it in a fictional future, when the book was written, it is very interesting these predictions were made.

There was financial collapse on the run up to 2010 however it was as a result of inadequately regulated banks becoming over extended, not the reason Clarke predicts which was the inability to control macroeconomic policy. Control of interest and exchange rates were the sorts of reasons that I would have expected a case for Britain to leave the European Union to be based around also. Instead rather disturbingly the case to leave centred mainly on stopping foreign immigration to Britain, and apparently inaccurate and over inflated figures about how much Britain pays to be part of the EU and how these supposed amounts could have alternatively been spent.

I find this particularly disturbing as encouraging voters fear of outsiders through casting aspersions and blame on foreigners is the least imaginative and lowest form of politics and has been the ploy of many tyrants throughout history.

The ancient Greek philosopher Plato warned us (Quote)

These democratic leaders will realize that they are only easily supported when there is a war that the people can rally behind. And so the democratic leaders will unnecessarily become involved in violent affairs, creating wars to distract the people. To ensure their power, the leaders will create laws to bolster their position. The rulers will impose heavy taxes against the commoners to ensure they are unable or unwilling to fight back against this. And any who do oppose the leaders will be labeled as an enemy and persecuted as a spy. It is for this reason that there must always be some enemy combatant that the leader can cast blame upon. (Source, Classicalwisdom.com)

United Nations High commissioner for Human Rights (Quote)

24 April 2015 – After decades of “sustained and unrestrained anti-foreigner abuse,” and in the wake of a recent article in the Sun newspaper calling migrants ‘cockroaches,’ the United Nations human rights chief today urged British authorities and media to take steps to curb incitement to hatred by tabloid newspapers, in line with the country’s obligations under national and international law.

(Source, UN News Centre)

Clarke then goes on to predict that after Britain is forced out of the EU the United Kingdom falls apart. Although the June 2016 EU referendum showed that those in Britain who voted, by a small margin, were in favour of leaving Europe. Scotland voted with a greater majority to remain in. Scotland in September 2014, in its own referendum voted against independence from the UK. Ironically one of the significant cases made by the Westminster government of the time, to the Scottish people against their independence was that if they opted to leave the UK then they would have to apply for membership of the EU separately in their own right. Neither is ‘Europe’ the only area where public opinion in Scotland is significantly different.

Lastly, Clark predicts that in 2019; Northern Ireland is ‘seded’ to Eire, The Royals are ‘Packed’ off to Australia and England and Wales become the 52nd state of the USA.

On the 8th March 2016 The Sun newspaper reported that ‘Queen backs Brexit’ (front page head line). Though reported in the sun news paper, whose ethics, on refugees and migrants, are already brought into question, under Britain’s obligations under National and International Law. It has been reported more recently in the Telegraph news paper that the BBC suggest the Queen did back Brexit. As our unelected head of state, the Queen is supposed to remain politically neutral. Is it true that she has broken with her obligations of political neutrality? If so, where does this leave the Royal Family constitutionally?

Are England and Wales then destined to become the 52nd state of the USA? Noam Chomsky warns that a UK departure from the EU wouldn’t be a good thing for the World, not only Britain, who then being outside the European economic zone would be more subordinate to US power. It’s timely and worth mentioning here, that the incoming US President’s energy policy, is diametrically opposed to that of the Scottish government, and he wants them to stop the use of electricity generating wind turbines, so they don’t interfere with the view from a golf course which he has built, on the north-east coast of Scotland.

Could our decision-making be helped or partially taken over by a planetary artificial intelligence then? I think the answer might be yes. A well programmed AI, with the right safe guards, could possibly do no worse than human decision makers have over the years. We can at least look to Artificial Intelligence and logic to help us understand our current political challenges in an alternative and pragmatic way.

In conclusion, since this article was inspired by some of his ideas, I should mention why I like the works of Arthur C. Clarke. Not only a great mind he also gives us hope for the future of our human species. In Clarks’ future, unlike many science fictions, there is no catastrophic apocalypse, and though it’s a struggle, the human race does come together and work out its problems here on earth and ultimately reach for the stars. Clarke deals in universes and possible alternative universes though. The future of our planet and species can at least in part be determined by that which we set in motion in our present, as individuals and collectively as the Human Race.

Malcolm Dixon 07 January 2017 http://www.malcolmdixon.com/

Featured Image made using GIMP 2.8.10 Image Manipulation Program by Malcolm Dixon

Sources Links and Bibliography

A Time Odyssey Trilogy by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

Vol.1. Time’s Eye

Vol.2. Sun Storm

Vol.3. First Born

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Time_Odyssey

Space Odyssey Series by Arthur C Clarke

2001: A Space Odyssey

2010: Odyssey Two

2061: Odyssey Three

3001: The Final Odyssey

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Odyssey

The Light of Other Days by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Light_of_Other_Days

Manufacturing consent by Edward S Herman and Noam Chomsky

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manufacturing_Consent

Hal-9000

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL_9000

Nature and Media (article) Rebecca Welshman

https://wordpress.com/read/feeds/25917973/posts/1275490080

Noam Chomsky

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Noam_Chomsky

Noam Chomsky interview clip

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HuSHFshMy7Q

Democracy Reference

https://www.reference.com/history/strengths-weaknesses-athenian-democracy-7e52e1db44ddb0fb

Plato and Democracy

https://classicalwisdom.com/plato-and-the-disaster-of-democracy/

Credit crunch 2008
https://www.theguardian.com/business/2008/dec/28/markets-credit-crunch-banking-2008

UN News Desk

http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=50675#.WGzexlSLTVM

Queen EU opinion leak

https://www.theguardian.com/media/2016/jun/22/the-sun-queen-brexit-front-page

Queen EU opinion leak

http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2016/12/26/queen-did-back-brexit-bbc-suggests-claims-said-wanted-get/

US President golf course Scotland

https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/nov/22/trump-british-allies-against-windfarms-golf-courses-scotland

The light of Other Days by Arthur C Clarke and Stephen Baxter (Page 17)

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